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New Species of Ctenosaura (Squamata, Iguanidae) from Southeastern Honduras

Carlos Roberto Hasbún1 and Gunther Köhler2

1Fundación Zoológica de El Salvador, Apdo. Postal 19 Condominio Galerias, San Salvador, El Salvador crhasbun@yahoo.com

2Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Senckenberg, Senckenberganlage 25, 60325 Frankfurt a.M., Germany gkoehler@senckenberg.de
Abstract

A new species of Ctenosaura is described from the Pacific versant of southeastern Honduras (Departments of Francisco Morazán and Choluteca). This species occurs in a restricted area between the ranges of Ctenosaura flavidorsalis (southwest Honduras, El Salvador and southeastern Guatemala) and Ctenosaura quinquecarinata (Nicaragua and Costa Rica). The new species differs from C. quinquecarinata, Ctenosaura oaxacana, and C. flavidorsalis in several scalation and osteological characteristics and coloration pattern. The suggested phylogenetic relationships of the new species are ((C. flavidorsalis + Ctenosaura sp. “southeastern Honduras”) + (C. quinquecarinata + C. oaxacana)). The specimens of the new species were mostly found in hollow trees and branches no more than 2 m above the ground. The habitat was dominated by shrub and tree vegetation. This lizard feeds mainly on young leaves and insects. Local people occasionally hunt the ctenosaur for food and consider it to have become rarer in the last two decades, primarily because of habitat loss.
Resumen

Una nueva especie de Ctenosaura es descrita proveniente de la vertiente Pacífica del sureste de Honduras (Departamentos de Francisco Morazan y Choluteca). Esta especie habita entre el ámbito geográfico de Ctenosaura flavidorsalis (suroeste de Honduras, El Salvador y sureste de Guatemala) y Ctenosaura quinquecarinata (Nicaragua y Costa Rica). La nueva especie difiere de C. quinquecarinata, Ctenosaura oaxacana y C. flavidorsalis en varias características de escamación, coloración y osteológicas. La relación filogenénica sugerida es ((C. flavidorsalis + Ctenosaura sp. “sureste de Honduras”) + (C. quinquecarinata + C .oaxacana)). Los especímenes de la nueva especie fueron encontrados en los huecos de los árboles a no más de 2 m del suelo. El hábitat estaba dominado por arbustos y árboles. La gente local caza ocasionalmente esta iguana y considera que esta especie se ha vuelto escasa durante las últimas dos décadas principalmente por la pérdida de hábitat adecuado.

Accepted: July 22, 2008

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Appendix 1



Ctenosaura flavidorsalis

Honduras: La Paz: 1 km south of La Paz, 750 m, 14°16′N, 87°40′W: SMF 75845, 75910, 77084, 80897; Intibucá: Santa Lucia, 13°55.17′N, 88°23.43′W, 375 m: SMF 79126–79128. Guatemala: Jutiapa: approximately 15 km southeast of Agua Blanca, Aldea El Rincón, 900 m: BMNH 2000.1–2000.3, SMF 79415–79418, USAC 001–002, 559–561. El Salvador: Morazán: Corinto, La Cueva de Corinto, 13°49.93′N, 88°57.59′W, 863 m: MUHNES 30–1223, SMF 79506; 1–2 km north of La Cueva de Corinto: BMNH 2000.4, SMF 78507–78509; Cerro El Aguacate, 13°48′N, 87°57.6′W, 1,000–1,010 m: BMNH 2000.5, MUHNES 30.1224–30.1225, 30.1228, 30.1230, SMF 79510–79511, 79514–79515; Cerro El Junco, 880–900 m: BMNH 2000.6–2000.7, MUHNES 30.1226–30.1227, SMF 79512–79513; Cacaopera, Río Torola, Cantón Calavera: MUHNES C361; La Unión: 8 km east of El Sauce, 100 m: MUHNES 30.1229; Isla Conchaguita: MUHNES C390; Santa Ana: Metapán, 1 km south of Casas de Teja 700 m: MUHNES 30.1232; San Vicente: 1 km west of San Ildefonso, 210 m: MUHNES 30.1231.

Ctenosaura quinquecarinata

unknown locality: BMNH 1946.8.30.48. Nicaragua: Boaco: Haciento Viejo (near Teustepe), approximately 3 km west of La Guegue, 12°25.65′N, 85°53.31′W, 290 m: SMF 79521–79522; El Consuelo, approximately 2 km west of Haciento Viejo, 280 m: SMF 79525; 5 km north of La Cruz de Teustepe, 120 m elevation: SMF 77707–77710; vicinity of La Cruz de Teustepe, 120–150 m: SMF 79522–79524; vicinity of La Cruz de Teustepe, 120–150 m: SMF 79530–79533; Estelí: 1 km East of San Francisco del Norte, 13°11.87′N, 86°44.23′W, 284 m: SMF 79526; 6 km east of San Francisco del Norte, 13°10.85′N, 86°40.20′W, 330 m: SMF 79527–79529; Jinotega: near Jinotega: KU 174065; Managua: km 56 on highway to Rama: KU 174062–174064. Costa Rica: Guanacaste: Cantón Las Cañas, Río Sandillal: MZUCR 7047; Cantón La Cruz, Quebrada El Nance, Parque Nacional Santa Rosa: MZUCR 8228–8231; 3 km east of Cuajiniquil, 10°52′N, 85°40′W: MZUCR 12677, 13577, 13615.

Ctenosaura oaxacana

Mexico: Oaxaca: Mixtequilla, 120 m: MZFC 12441–12442, 12445–12447; 8 km north of Mixtequilla: SMF 75704–75706; Niltepec, 120 m: MZFC 12436–12440; Nisanda, Municipio Asunción Isaltepec, 1 km northeast of Ejido de Mena Nisanda, 90–125 m: MZFC 12435, 12443–12444, 12469–12470; “Oaxaca”: BMNH 1871.11.24.2; Salina Cruz: BMNH 1903.9.30.29; 10 km north of Salina Cruz: SMF 75709; Tehuantepec: BMNH 90.10.10.33, SMF 43259; Tequesixtlan, Tehuantepec: BMNH 1903.9.30.20–1903.9.30.21.

Appendix 2

Studied Characters

Morphometric Characters

1. Snout–vent length (SVL): The distance from tip of snout to anterior margin of vent.

2. Tail length (VTL): The distance from the posterior margin of the vent to the tip of the tail (only taken if tail is complete).

3. Snout length (SL): The distance from tip of the snout to anterior border of orbit.

4. Head length (HL): The distance from tip of snout to anterior border of tympanum.

5. Orbital bridge (OB): The distance between orbits (= frontal bone width).

6. Head width (HW): The distance across the widest point of the head taken at a right angle from the mandible.

7. Shank length (SKL): The distance from knee to heel.

8. Foot length (FL) The distance from heel to the crotch between third and fourth toes.

9. Toe length (Toe): The distance from the crotch between third and fourth toe and the tip of the fourth toe excluding its claw.

10. Crest length (DCL): The distance between the tip of the longest dorsal crest and its base.

11. Interparietal scale width (IW): The distance across the lateral margins of the interparietal scale.

12. Interparietal scale length (IL): The distance along the postero-anterior margin of the interparietal scale.

13. Tympanum length (TyL): The vertical (dorso-ventral) diameter of the tympanum.

14. Tympanum width (TyW): The horizontal (antero-posterior) diameter of the tympanum.

15. Tail width (TW): The distance across the widest section of the tail measured between the tips of the outermost spinous scales.

16. Tail depth A (TDa): The distance from the ventral base of tail to the tip of the dorsal spine taken at the widest section of the tail.

17. Tail depth B (TDb): The distance from the ventral base of tail to the base of the dorsal spine taken from the widest section of the tail.

18. Between spinous scale distance (BSC): The distance between the caudal middorsal spinous scale and the first enlarged lateral spinous scale. This measurement was taken from the scale tips and at the widest section of the tail.

19. Medial scale length (MSL): The diagonal distance from the anterior base to the medial spinous scale to its tip and taken from the widest section of tail.

20. Third tail band width (TTBW): The gross distance along the third (counted in an antero-posterior direction) dark caudal band.

21. Seventh tail band width (STBW): The gross distance along the seventh (counted in an antero-posterior direction) dark caudal band.

Scale Counts

22. Femoral pores (FP): The number of femoral pores.

23. Toe dorsal scales (TDS): The number of dorsal scales of the fourth toe counted from the crotch of the fourth toe to its tip.

24. Toe lamellae (TL): The number of subdigital scales on the fourth toe.

25. Crest density (CD): The number of middorsal crest scales contained in one head length.

26. Interparietal scales (SAI): The number of scales around the interparietal scale.

27. Rostrum scales (RS): The number of scales around the rostrum, excluding the first supralabialia scale.

28. Internasals (CN): The number of scales between the nasal scales.

29. Supraorbital and interparietal scales (SIS): The number of scales between the supraorbital and interparietal scale.

30. Prefrontal scales in a straight line (PFS): The number of scales covered by the straight-line distance from the interparietal scale to the rostrum.

31. Canthal scales (CS): The number of scales between the nostrils and the supraoculars.

32. Subocular scales (SC): The number of enlarged scales just below the ocular region.

33. Between subocular and labials (BSL): The minimum number of scales between the subocular and supralabial scales.

34. Between supraorbital scales (BSO): The minimum number of scales between the supraorbital scales.

35. Infralabials (SBL): The number of scales on the lower mandible taken from the mental scales to the bifurcation of the mandible.

36. Supralabials (SPL): The number of scales on the upper mandible taken from the rostral scales to the bifurcation of the mandible.

37. Postmental scales (PM): The number of scales contacting the mental scale, excluding the first infralabial scale.

38. Spinous paramedian saudal whorls (SWRL): The number of caudal whorls with spinous paramedian scales (Fig. 5).

39. Paramedian 3–2 (PM3–2): The whorl number (antero-posterior direction) where there is a reduction from three to two paramedian scales.

40. Intercalary scales (IC): The number of intercalary scales between the sixth and the seventh caudal whorl.

41. Paramedian 2–1 (PM2–1): The whorl number (antero-posterior direction) where there is a reduction from two to one paramedian scales.

42. Paramedian 4 (PM4): The number of whorls with four paramedian scales.

43. Medial Intercalary Scale (MIS): The whorl number where the medial intercalary scale begins.

44. Anterior dorsal rows (ADR): The number of rows of scales from occiput to the first enlarged middorsal crest scale.

45. Nuchal scales (NS): The number of nuchal crest scales along the midline of the nuchal region before the middorsal crest line.

46. Middorsal scales (MDCS): The number of enlarged crest scales along the midline of the dorsum.

47. Posterior dorsal rows (PDR): The number of rows of scales along the sacral midline region from the last middorsal scale to the first enlarged midcaudal scale.

48. Preocular scales (PREOC): The number of scales between superciliary or second canthal and the central elongated subocular scale.

Condition of Scales

49. Shank scales (SKS): The condition of the scales of the shank region: (1) keeled and not distinctly enlarged; (2) enlarged and spinous.

50. Shank scales (ShS): The condition of the scales of the shank region: (1) keeled but not distinctly enlarged; (2) enlarged and spinous.

51. Paramedian scales (PMS): The condition of the paramedian scales just anteriorly to the reduction of three to two paramedian scales: (1) smooth; (2) keeled; (3) spinous.

52. Intercalary scales (IS). The condition of the intercalary scales located between the sixth whorl and the seventh whorl of spinous caudal scales: (1) smooth; (2) keeled.

53. Nuchal Crest (NC): The presence of enlarged nuchal scales along the midline just anteriorly to the middorsal crest: (1) none enlarged scales; (2) enlarged scales.

54. Nuchal gaps (NG): Gaps filled with small scales between enlarged middorsal crest scales: (1) present; (2) absent.

55. Paramedian scales (SPMS): Condition of spinosity of the caudal paramedian scales between the sixth and 14th caudal whorl: (1) none spinous; (2) intraparamedian more spinous than outerparamedian; (3) intraparamedian less spinous than outerparamedian.

56. Middorsal crest scales (SCS): Shape of middorsal crest scales: (1) relaxed; (2) constricted.

57. Fifth paramedian scales (5PM): Condition of the scales on the fifth paramedian caudal whorl: (1) all flattened; (2) one flat and the rest tuberculate; (3), two flat and the rest tuberculate; (4) all spinous; (5) two spinous and one tuberculate; (6) one spinous and two tuberculate; (7) two spinous and two tuberculate.

58. Seventh paramedian scales (7PM; see Fig. 5): Condition of the scales on the seventh paramedian caudal whorl: (1) all flat; (2) one flat and the rest tuberculate; (3), two flat and the rest tuberculate; (4) all spinous; (5) two spinous and one tuberculate; (6) one spinous and two tuberculate; (7) two spinous and two tuberculate.

Patterns of Coloration

59. Tail bands (TB): The condition of the bands of the tail: (1) no bands; (2) diffused flecking; (3) fragmented; (4) clear and complete.

60. Condition of ventral bands (CVB): Overall condition of ventral bands: (1) no bands; (2) fragmented; (3) clear band.

61. Dorso-medial band (DMB/61): The condition of the band along the dorso-medial surface of the specimen: (1) no band; (2) fragmented; (3) continuous.

62. Lateral bands (LB): The number of defined lateral bands in the abdominal region.

63. Lateral pattern (LP): The condition of the lateral surface of the abdomen: (1) no spots; (2) diffused spots; (3) distinctly spotted.

64. Neck division (ND): The condition of the division of color between dorsal and ventral sides of neck: (1) diffused; (2) sharp.

65. Around ventral bands (AVB): The condition of the ventral bands considering their length around a specimen's body. (1) Bands end laterally; (2), bands reach onto ventrally.

Osteological Characters

66. Lacrimal-jugal suture (LJ): The condition of the lacrimal-jugal suture: (1) straight; (2) bifurcated.

67. Anterior inferior alveolar foramen (AIAF): Position of the anterior inferior alveolar foramen in relation to the splenial bone: (1) associated with splenial; (2) not associated with splenial.

68. Frontal process (FPR): The relative length of the lateral process of the frontal bone as compared to the medial frontal process: (1) short; (2) long.

69. Parietal bone (PB): Posterior angle of the parietal bone: (1) narrow; (2) wide.